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USING SPORTS SCIENCE TO VERIFY DESIGN BREAKTHROUGHS

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A. SUMMARY OF RAY LLOYD’S RESEARCH
     1. Position of Centre of Mass
     2. Forward Lean
     3. Horizontal Ground Forces
     4. Summary of Physiological Variables
     5. Energy Expenditure
     6. Comfort
     7. Balance
     8. Pack Stability
     9. Body Discomfort

B. SUMMARY OF OTHER RESEARCH ON LOAD CARRYING SYSTEMS

C. REFERENCES

B. A SUMMARY OF RESEARCH ON VARIOUS LOAD CARRYING SYSTEMS

C. REFERENCES

Basnyat B. & Schepens B. The burden of the Himalayan porter (2001) High altitude medicine & biology 2:315-316

Bastien G., Heglund P.A., Schepens B. & Heglund N.C. (2001) No free load for porters in Nepal Arch. Physiol. and Biochem, 109: S1

Bastien G.J., Schepens B., Willems P.A. & Heglund N.C. (2005) Energetics of load carrying in Nepalese porters. Science, 308: 1755

Bastien G.J., Willems P.A., Schepens B. & Heglund N.C. (2005) Effect of load and speed on the energetic cost of human walking. Eur J Appl. Physiol., 94: 76-83

Cavagna G.A., Willems P.A., Legramandai M.A. & Heglund N.C. (2002) Pendular energy transduction within the step in human walking. J. exp. Biol. 205: 3413-3422

Heglund N.C., Willems P.A., Penta M.C. & Cavagna G.A. (1995) Energy-saving gait mechanics with head-supported loads. Nature, 375: 52-55

Kirk, J. and Schneider, D. (1992).” Physiological and perceptual responses to load carrying in female subjects using internal and external frame backpacks.”Ergonomics, 35, 445-455.

Lloyd, R. (1997).“ A comparison of load carriage using two different rucksac designs with unloaded walking”. MSc Thesis, Leeds Metropolitan University, UK.

Lloyd, R. and Cooke, C. (2000). “The oxygen consumption associated with unloaded walking and load carriage with two different backpack designs”. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 81, 486-492.

Lloyd, R. and Cooke, C. (2011). "Biomechanical differences associated with two different load carriage systems and their relationship to economy." Human Movement, Vol 12(1), 65-74.

Read, S.A., Whiteside, R.A. ”Biomechanical assessment of lateral stiffness elements in the suspension system of a rucksack”. Ergonomics Research Group, Queens University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada

Schepens B., Basnyat B., Willems P.A. & Heglund N.C. (2001) Measurement of the loads carried by porters in Nepal Arch. Physiol. and Biochem, 109: S72

Young, C. (2001). “A comparison between two backpacks with various loads on energy expenditure of experienced male backpackers” MSc. Thesis, University of Wisconsin, La Crosse, USA. 

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